10th August 2008 - New review
Disulfide as a cause of Parkinson's Disease
Carbon disulfide, usually in solvents or pesticides, can cause Parkinson's
Disease that is associated with other neurological symptoms. The effects can
persist for years after exposure to the carbon disulfide has ceased.
Potential sources : pesticides used as fumigants
, disulfiram (a drug
used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism)
, industrial solvents
, solvents used in the
production of viscose rayon and cellophane film  .
Means of toxicity : This is not established. However, carbon disulphide
interferes with pyridoxal 5-phosphate. Pyridoxal 5-phosphate is essential for
the formation of dopamine from L-dopa. So carbon disulphide may cause
Parkinson's Disease symptoms by reducing the formation of L-dopa.
Symptoms : atypical Parkinsonism (cerebellar signs, hearing loss, sensory
changes, cogwheel rigidity, decreased associated movements, distal sensory
shading, intention tremulousness, resting tremulousness, and nerve conduction
; Parkinsonism and
frontal lobe-like syndrome associated with bilateral lesions of the lentiform
; balance problems,
impotence, and irritability, without tremor, cogwheel rigidity, bradykinesia, or
changes in facial expression
pyramidal signs, mild cognitive decline, and unresponsiveness to levodopa. Two
patients had a predominantly axonal and sensory polyneuropathy of the lower legs
with fasciculations in one of them. Parkinsonian features were progressive, even
after the patients had stopped work
; encephalopathy with
Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairments, as
well as axonal polyneuropathy
encephalopathy, tremor; Parkinsonian features, Parkinsonian features without
polyneuropathy or cerebellar signs
; Carbon disulfide
toxicity may persist for several years after exposure to carbon disulfide has
Further references :  Journal of neuropathology
and experimental neurology  4 : 324 (R.Richter),  British journal of
industrial medicine  11 : 235 (E.C.Vigliani).
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